The atomic structure of the clean and adsorbate covered Ir(110) surface

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Titel: The atomic structure of the clean and adsorbate covered Ir(110) surface
Sonstige Titel: Die atomare Struktur der reinen und adsorbatbedeckten Ir(110) Oberfläche
Autor(en): Kuntze, Jens
Erstgutachter: Prof. Dr. Werner Heiland
Zweitgutachter: Prof. Dr. Eckard Rühl
Zusammenfassung: The adsorption and coadsorption of sulfur and oxygen on the Ir(110) surface was investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The clean Ir(110) surface forms alternating (331) and (33-1) minifacets, resulting in a mesoscopically rippled surface. Upon chemisorption of sulfur or oxygen and subsequent annealing, the surface structure is changed. In the following, the results concerning sulfur and oxygen adsorption will be summarized before addressing the coadsorption system. Sulfur adsorption: At sulfur coverages of 0.1-0.2 ML, the Ir(110) surface adopts a (1x2) missing-row configuration similar to clean Au(110) and Pt(110). The sulfur-stabilized Ir(110)-(1x2) does not show any evidence for the preference of (111) faceted steps, and consequently does not form a mesoscopic fish-scale pattern. The latter was observed on the (110) surfaces of Au and Pt, and was found to be driven by the preference for (111) step facets. On Ir(110), no such preference seems to exist, since (331) step facets are frequently observed. With respect to the adsorbed sulfur, no extended islands are observed, indicating repulsive adsorbate-adsorbate interactions. At sulfur coverages near 0.5 ML, a p(2x2) structure with p2mg (glide-plane) symmetry is observed. The adsorption site and structural model derived by STM are compatible with an earlier LEED analysis of that structure: S adsorbs in threefold coordinated fcc hollow sites above the (111) facets formed by the non-missing substrate rows. At coverages higher than 0.5 ML, a c(2x4) LEED pattern with additional faint streaks in the [-110] azimuth is observed. STM reveals that the streaks are due to pairs of sulfur atoms (dimers, for brevity) in a second adsorbate layer, that can be desorbed by heating to 1100 K. A structural model is derived on the basis of the STM results, showing the dimer atoms in on-top positions over sulfur atoms of the first adsorbate layer. When the surface is completely covered by the dimers, the surface is saturated at 0.75 ML. Oxygen adsorption: In agreement with earlier reports, oxygen adsorption and subsequent annealing to 700-900 K results in an unreconstructed (1x1) surface, covered by a c(2x2)-O overlayer at 0.5 ML coverage. Coadsorption of oxygen on an S-precovered surface (S-coverage below 0.5 ML) leads to a phase separation of the adsorbates (competitive adsorption). At low coverages, oxygen forms a p(2x2)-O phase, whereas at higher O-coverages a compression into a (1x2)-O phase is observed. Postannealing the (1x2)-O phase at 900 K in vacuum leads to a reduction of the sulfur concentration, indicating sulfur oxidation. Interestingly, the p(2x2)-O phase does not seem to be reactive, according to the AES results. A possible explanation may be that the more densely packed (1x2)-O phase can be regarded as an activated structure. This is also supported by the STM results. At S-coverages above 0.5 ML, the surface is completely poisoned with respect to oxygen adsorption. Nevertheless, heating the sulfur saturated Ir(110)-c(2x4)-S structure in an oxygen atmosphere, the sulfur concentration gradually drops to zero. At intermediate stages of this oxidation process, island formation is observed by STM, but the underlying formation processes remain to be resolved.
Schlagworte: Iridium; Sulfur; Oxygen; Chemisorption; Surface structure; Scanning tunneling microscopy; Iridium; Schwefel; Sauerstoff; Adsorption; Oberfläche; Struktur; Rastertunnelmikroskopie
Erscheinungsdatum: 26-Sep-2000
Enthalten in den Sammlungen:FB04 - E-Dissertationen

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