Die Inverse Gaschromatographie als Charakterisierungstechnik für Oberflächen - Untersuchungen an oberflächenmodifizierten Silica-Materialien

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Title: Die Inverse Gaschromatographie als Charakterisierungstechnik für Oberflächen - Untersuchungen an oberflächenmodifizierten Silica-Materialien
Authors: Meyer, Ralf Frank
Thesis advisor: Prof. Dr. Martin Steinhart
Thesis referee: Prof. Dr. Dirk Enke
Abstract: For elucidating catalytic processes and enhancing process efficiency, the characterisation of porous catalysts is crucial. While the chemical characterisation of the catalyst surface, e.g. by infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, is standard practice, the energetic characterisation of surface sites is often neglected, although all heterogeneously catalyzed reactions take place at the surface. Inverse gas chromatography is a gas phase method to investigate a large number of physico-chemical, morphological and energetical surface properties of particles, granulates or fibers. In this dissertation, silica materials with well-defined surface properties and a large specific surface area (porous glass beads, pyrogenic silica) were investigated. For potential catalytic and sensoric applications, the silica material was additionally grafted with organofunctional silanes. The overall aim of this Thesis was to apply IGC-theories to different silicas before and after surface modification, to examine the potential of this characterisation method. The validity of the results was set against its limitations, to verify the IGC as sensitive method even for small changes of physico-chemical surface properties. It was observed that the physicochemical properties of the surface are predominatly determined by silanol and siloxane groups. In particular the LEWIS-acid silanol groups strongly interact with LEWIS-basic polar probe molecules. This results in high values for free surface energy with a dominant polar component and an overall LEWIS-acidity of the silica. Measurements indicated specific surface areas respectively to the applied probe molecule. In particular 2-propanol showed strong interactions, a very high surface area, but also a heterogenous adsorption behaviour. According to PAPIRERs Patchwork model of condensation approximation, two different states of adsorption were found. With DFT-simulation these were identified as low energetic hydrogen bonds between 2-propanol and siloxan and as high energetic hydrogen bonds between 2-propanol and silanol groups. Nevertheless, all of the IGC findings point to a reduction of the acidity of silica and an increase in hydrophobicity by surface modification due to the loss of silanol groups with the silane grafting. Finally, the IGC can be presented as a many-faceted useful tool for surface characterisation. Its variability and sensitivity expands most other classical methods. Complex surface properties like free surface energies, acid-base functionality, kinetic parameters, specific surface area and surface heterogenity can be determined from single chromatographic peaks with the respective theories. Throughout the investigation, a new non-linear parameter estimation approach was introduced in contrast to the common linear computation models. Therefore, an increasing number of involved probe molecules and also the use of bipolar probes yields in statistical more reliable results.
URL: https://repositorium.ub.uni-osnabrueck.de/handle/urn:nbn:de:gbv:700-202104194315
Subject Keywords: Inverse gas chromatography; Porous glass; Surface properties; Surface heterogeneity; Surface modification; 3-Mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane
Issue Date: 19-Apr-2021
Type of publication: Dissertation oder Habilitation [doctoralThesis]
Appears in Collections:FB05 - E-Dissertationen

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