3D Building Model Reconstruction from Very High Resolution Satellite Stereo Imagery

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Title: 3D Building Model Reconstruction from Very High Resolution Satellite Stereo Imagery
Authors: Partovi, Tahmineh
Thesis advisor: Prof. Dr. Peter Reinartz
Thesis referee: Prof. Dr. Friedrich Fraundorfer
Abstract: Automatic three-dimensional (3D) building model reconstruction using remote sensing data is crucial in applications which require large-scale and frequent building model updates, such as disaster monitoring and urban management, to avoid huge manual efforts and costs. Recent advances in the availability of very high-resolution satellite data together with efficient data acquisition and large area coverage have led to an upward trend in their applications for 3D building model reconstructions. In this dissertation, a novel multistage hybrid automatic 3D building model reconstruction approach is proposed which reconstructs building models in level of details 2 (LOD2) based on digital surface model (DSM) data generated from the very high-resolution stereo imagery of the WorldView-2 satellite. This approach uses DSM data in combination with orthorectified panchromatic (PAN) and pan-sharpened data of multispectral satellite imagery to overcome the drawbacks of DSM data, such as blurred building boundaries, rough building shapes unwanted failures in the roof geometries. In the first stage, the rough building boundaries in the DSM-based building masks are refined by classifying the geometrical features of the corresponding PAN images. The refined boundaries are then simplified in the second stage through a parameterization procedure which represents the boundaries by a set of line segments. The main orientations of buildings are then determined, and the line segments are regularized accordingly. The regularized line segments are then connected to each other based on a rule-based method to form polygonal building boundaries. In the third stage, a novel technique is proposed to decompose the building polygons into a number of rectangles under the assumption that buildings are usually composed of rectangular structures. In the fourth stage, a roof model library is defined, which includes flat, gable, half-hip, hip, pyramid and mansard roofs. These primitive roof types are then assigned to the rectangles based on a deep learning-based classification method. In the fifth stage, a novel approach is developed to reconstruct watertight parameterized 3D building models based on the results of the previous stages and normalized DSM (nDSM) of satellite imagery. In the final stage, a novel approach is proposed to optimize building parameters based on an exhaustive search, so that the two-dimensional (2D) distance between the 3D building models and the building boundaries (obtained from building masks and PAN image) as well as the 3D normal distance between the 3D building models and the 3D point clouds (obtained from nDSM) are minimized. Different parts of the building blocks are then merged through a newly proposed intersection and merging process. All corresponding experiments were conducted on four areas of the city of Munich including 208 buildings and the results were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. According to the results, the proposed approach could accurately reconstruct 3D models of buildings, even the complex ones with several inner yards and multiple orientations. Furthermore, the proposed approach provided a high level of automation by the limited number of primitive roof model types required and by performing automatic parameter initialization. In addition, the proposed boundary refinement method improved the DSM-based building masks specified by 8 % in area accuracy. Furthermore, the ridge line directions and roof types were detected accurately for most of the buildings. The combination of the first three stages improved the accuracy of the building boundaries by 70 % in comparison to using line segments extracted from building masks without refinement. Moreover, the proposed optimization approach could achieve in most cases the best combinations of 2D and 3D geometrical parameters of roof models. Finally, the intersection and merging process could successfully merge different parts of the complex building models.
URL: https://repositorium.ub.uni-osnabrueck.de/handle/urn:nbn:de:gbv:700-201910022067
Subject Keywords: Remote Sensing; Very High Resolution Stereo Satellite Imagery; Digital Surface Models; 3D Parametric Building Model Reconstruction; Level of Details 2; Optimization; Machine Learning; Deep Learning; Geometrical Solutions; Data-driven Method; Model-driven Method; Hybrid Method
Issue Date: 2-Oct-2019
License name: Attribution 3.0 Germany
License url: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/de/
Type of publication: Dissertation oder Habilitation [doctoralThesis]
Appears in Collections:FB06 - E-Dissertationen

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